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Batak Tribe

Written By Rio Gonzales on Saturday, January 28, 2012 | Saturday, January 28, 2012

HISTORY 
Batak kingdom was founded by a king in the country Toba sila-silahi (Silalahi) lua 'Baligi (Luat Balige), Parsoluhan village, tribe Pohan. The king in question is named Raja Alang Pardoksi magic power (Pardosi). Batak hey day kingdom led by a king named. Sultan Maharaja Bongsu in 1054 AH successfully prosperity of the country with its political policies.
 

  

DESCRIPTION LOCATION 
Batak tribes of North Sumatra. Home of the Batak homelands known as the Mainland High Karo, Kangkat Hulu, Hulu Deli, Serdang Hulu, Simalungun, Toba, Mandailing and Central Tapanuli. The area is traversed by a series of Bukit Barisan in the area of ​​North Sumatra, and there is a large lake called Lake Toba is the Batak people. Judging from the administrative area, they inhabit the several district or this part of the territory of North Sumatra. Karo Regency ie, Simalungun, Dairi, North Tapanuli, and Asahan.

CULTURAL ELEMENTS
A. Language 

In the life and daily life, the Batak use some accent, are: (1) Slang used by people Karo Karo, (2) Slang used by Pakpak Pakpak, (3) Slang used by Simalungun Simalungun, (4) Slang used by Toba Toba, Angkola and Mandailing.
B. Knowledge
 
Batak people are also familiar with the ancient system of mutual assistance in farming. In the language was called Raron Karo activity, whereas in the Toba language it is called Marsiurupan. A group of neighbors or close relatives of people together to work the land and each member in turn. Raron it is an institution whose membership is voluntary and the long standing depends on the approval of participants.
C. Technology 

Batak society has come to know and use simple equipment used to grow crops in their lives. Such as hoes, plows (plow in Karo), single stick (Karo crank in the language), sickle (Sabi-Sabi) or ani-ani. Batak society also has the traditional weapons, piso surit (a type of dagger), piso elephant densely packed (a keris that long), hujur (a type of spear), podang (a type of long sword). Other technological elements yaitukain ulos which is woven fabric that has many functions in the life of traditional Batak.
D. Social Organizationsa

Marriage In the tradition of tribal Batak can only marry someone with the Batak people of different clans, so if one is married he should find a life partner from another clan besides clan. If the marriage is someone who is not from the tribe of Batak, he has to be adopted by one of the Batak clan (different clans). The event was followed by a procession of marriages performed in the church because the majority of the population is Christian Batak.For the marriage dowry of the bride and sisters who are married.
b. Kinship Batak ethnic kinship groups living in rural areas who are called according to the terms of Kuta Huta or Karo. Usually one Huta inhabited by the family of a kin group marga.Ada also called clans taneh pariteral descendants of the founder group of Kuta. Marga is bound by certain symbols such as surnames. The little clan is a patrilineal relatives who still resides in one area. Instead a large clan whose members live scattered so much sdah not know each other but they can recognize the name of the clan members who always came behind her first name, social stratification of the Batak people is based on four principles: (a) tigkat differences in age, (b) differences in rank and positions, (c) differences in the nature of authenticity and (d) marital status.

E. Livelihood

 Batak society in general cultivation in the rice paddies and fields. Obtained from the division of land based clan. Each kelurga mandapat dirt but may not sell it. In addition to lands owned land as for individuals.Farms is also one of Batak tribe livelihood among other buffalo farms, cows, pigs, goats, chickens, and ducks. Catching fish is done most of the population around Lake Toba.Crafts sector is also growing. For example weaving, woven rattan, wood carving, temmbikar, there kaitanya with tourism.
F. Religion 

In the 19th century Islamic religion entered penyebaranya area covers the southern Batak. Christian religion came in about the year 1863 and includes the Batak penyebaranya north. Although d emikian many Batak people in rural areas are still the original concept of religion pendduk mmpertahankan Batak. Batak people have the conception that the universe and its contents were created by Debeta At So Na Balloons and resides in the sky and have the names in accordance with the duties and kedudukanya. At Debeta So Na Balloon: residing in the heavens and is the almighty creator; Siloan Na Balom: located as ruler of the world of spirits. In conjunction with the spirits and souls of the Batak know three concepts namely: Tondi: the soul or spirit; Sahala: the soul or spirit of one's own strength; Begu: Tondinya dead. Batak people also believe in the magic powers of amulets called Tongkal.
G. Art 

Dance Dance ie Tor-tor (magical); Dance serampang twelve (nature of entertainment). Traditional Musical Instruments: Gong; Saga-saga. Results from the tribe of Batak weaving craft is ulos fabric. The fabric is always displayed in the ceremony of marriage, building a house, the ceremony of death, surrender the estate, welcomed honored guests and Tor-tor dance ceremonies. Custom fabric in accordance with that belief system inherited ancestors.

CULTURAL VALUES
1. KinshipBatak society kinship values ​​embodied mainly in implementing custom Dalian Na Talu, where one must find a mate outside the group, people in one group are called Sabutuha (brothers), for the group receiving the girl to diperistri called Hula-hula. The group that gave the girl called Boru. 

2. HagabeonSignificant cultural value long life expectancy, birth, bercucu lot, and that is fine. 
3. HamoraanThe value of honor Batak tribe located on the balance of the spiritual aspects and meterial
4. Uhum and ugariUhum value reflected on the seriousness of the Batak people in upholding justice while ugari seen in fidelity to a promise. 
5. AegisAegis must be given to the environmental community, the task is in the waistband by three elements Dalihan Na Tolu. 
6. MarsisarianA value which means mutual understanding, respect, and help each other.

ASPECT DEVELOPMENT 

Development aspects of Batak tribe of entry and the onset of the school system an opportunity to gain social prestige. The occurrence of kinship networks based on peoples can work well. Custom themselves to the Batak people is sacred. Forgetting peoples are considered extremely dangerous.
The recognition of blood ties and marital ties to strengthen the rope in everyday life. Mutual help between relatives in world trade and in the middle of the field of modern urban life commonly seen among the Batak people. Tightness kinship networks that surround them that gives them a remarkable resilience in responding to the challenges of this century.

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