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Distribution of Flora in Indonesia

Written By Rio Gonzales on Thursday, December 22, 2011 | Thursday, December 22, 2011

The pattern of distribution of fauna in Indonesia together with the distribution patterns of plants, namely in the West, fauna has similarities with the fauna of Asia, the Eastern fauna is similar to the fauna in Australia, and between the two regions before, fauna is the fauna of the intermediate region. This is possible because in Indonesia the ice age had fused with Asia and Australia. At that time Indonesia became a bridge dispersal of animals from Asia and Australia.
Formation history of the land in Indonesia began in the ice age. At the beginning of the ice age, Earth's surface temperature dropped so that the surface sea water into fall. At that time, Indonesia's western region which is also called the Sunda Plain still fused with the continent of Asia, while the eastern part of Indonesia which is also called Sahul Plain together with the continent of Australia. Sunda and Sahul Terrain Terrain is also still a land not separated by seas and straits. The situation is causing diversity of flora and fauna in the western part of Indonesia such as Java, Bali, Borneo, and Sumatra in general showed similarity to the flora on the continent of Asia.Similarly premises flora and fauna in eastern Indonesia such as Irian Jaya and the surrounding islands generally have a similarity with the flora and fauna on the continent of Australia. So Indonesia at that time to be a bridge connecting the distribution of animals from Asia and Australia. Then, at the end of the ice age, Earth's surface temperature rises so that the sea levels rose again. Rising sea levels resulting in a separate Java with the continent of Asia, then apart from the last of Sumatra and Borneo. Furthermore, apart from Borneo and Sumatra from the Malay Peninsula and Borneo last separated from the Malay Peninsula.
Factors Contributing to the diversity of Flora and Fauna in IndonesiaDiversity of flora and fauna in a region can not be separated from the support conditions in the region. There are plants that can only grow in tropical areas, where a lot of rainfall and sunshine, and there can only be grown in areas with cold and damp. We certainly never saw the Meranti tree or tropical orchids in colder regions in the tundra. Support to the existence of conditions of an area of ​​flora and fauna in the form of physical factors (abiotic) and non-physical factors (biotic). Which includes physical factors (abiotic) is the climate (temperature, air humidity, wind), water, soil, and altitude, and that includes non-physical factors (biotic) is a human, animals, and plants.a. ClimateClimatic factors including temperature conditions, humidity and wind are very large influence on the life of every creature in the world. Temperature factors influence the ongoing process of physical growth of plants. Sunlight is necessary for green plants for photosynthesis. Air humidity also affect the physical growth of plants. While useful for wind pollination. Climatic factors which vary in some areas causing species of plants and animals are also different .. Plants in the tropics, many species, lush and green throughout the year as always capitalize the high rainfall and adequate sunshine.
b. SoilSoil contains many chemical elements necessary for the growth of flora in the world. Levels of chemical effect on the level of soil fertility. State of the soil structure affects the circulation of air in the soil, allowing plant roots to breathe properly. State of the soil texture effect on the soil to water absorption. Soil temperature effect on root growth and water conditions in the soil.The composition of the soil generally consists of inorganic mineral material (70% -90%), organic matter (1% -15%), air and water (0-9%). The things above shows how important soil factor for plant growth. Differences lead to differences in soil type and diversity of plant species that can live in a region. For example in the Nusa Tenggara is Sabana forest types because the land is less fertile.
c. WaterWater has an important role for plant growth because it can dissolve and carry the necessary food for the plant from the soil. Presence of water depending on rainfall and rainfall depends on the climate in the regions concerned. Type of flora in a region highly influential on the amount of rainfall in the region. Flora in areas that lack vegetation diversity rainfall is less than the flora in the area that a lot of rainfall.
d. High and low surfaceElevation factors are generally viewed from the Earth's surface from the sea surface height (elevation). For example 1500 m altitude means the venue is at 1500 m above sea level. The higher the temperature gets colder regions in the area. And vice versa when the lower mean air temperature in the area hotter. Each rose 100 meters average air temperature dropped about 0.5 degrees Celsius. So the lower a region increasingly hot area, and conversely the higher the colder regions the area. Therefore the height of the Earth's surface affects the type and distribution of plants. Air temperature humid areas, wet in the tropics, the plants more fertile than the regions where the temperature is hot and dry.
e. Humans, animals and plantsHumans are able to change the environment to meet specific needs. For example the area of ​​forest converted to agricultural areas, housing estates or by logging, reforestation,. Or fertilization. Humans can spread the plant from one place to another. In addition it is also capable of affecting the lives of fauna in a place by performing protection or hunting animals. This shows that the human factor influence on the life of flora and fauna in the world. Besides animal factors also play a role against the spread of plant flora.For example in the process of pollination insects, bats, birds, squirrels aid in seed dispersal of plants. The role of vegetation factor is to enrich the soil. Fertile soil development occurred allowing plant life and also affect the life of fauna. Examples of bacteria saprophit is a type of microscopic plants that help the destruction of the rubbish on the ground so that it can menyuburkkan ground.


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