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Borobudur temple

Written By Unknown on Wednesday, December 21, 2011 | Wednesday, December 21, 2011

Borobudur is the name of a Buddhist temple located at Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java. Location of the temple is approximately 100 miles southwest of Semarang and 40 miles northwest of Yogyakarta. This temple was founded by the Mahayana Buddhists around the year 800 AD during the reign of the dynasty dynasty. In Chinese, this temple is also called 婆罗 浮屠 (Hanyu Pinyin: po luo fu tu)
Many theories that attempt to explain the name of this temple. One of them states that the name is probably derived from the word Sambharabhudhara, which means "mountain" (bhudara) where the slopes are located terraces. In addition there are several other folk etymology. Suppose the word Borobudur derived from the words "the Buddha" is due to shift the sound to Borobudur. Another explanation is that the name comes from two words "coal" and "beduhur". The word bara said to have originated from the word monastery, while there is also another explanation in which the coal comes from Sanskrit which means temple or monastery and beduhur meaning is "high", or to remind the Balinese language means "above". So the point is a convent or dormitory located on high ground.
Historian J.G. de Casparis in his dissertation to earn his doctorate in 1950 argued that Borobudur is a place of worship. Based on the inscriptions and Kahulunan Karangtengah, Casparis estimate of Borobudur founder was the king of Mataram dynasty dynasty named Samaratungga, who do the construction around 824 AD The giant new building can be completed at the time of her daughter, Queen Pramudawardhani. Construction of Borobudur estimated half-century time-consuming. In Karangtengah inscriptions also mentioned about the bestowal of land sima (tax-free land) by Cri Kahulunan (Pramudawardhani) to maintain Kamulan called Bhūmisambhāra. The term itself comes from the word Kamulan first place of origin, which means, to honor the ancestral shrine, probably the ancestor of the dynasty Sailendra. Casparis estimates that Bhumi Sambhāra Bhudhāra in Sanskrit which means "Mount of the set of ten levels boddhisattwa virtue", was the original name of Borobudur.The structure of Borobudur
Borobudur Temple punden shaped staircase, which consists of six levels of a square, three levels of circular and a main stupa as a peak. Also scattered at all levels-levels several stupas.

Borobudur which clearly illustrates the ten-story school of Mahayana philosophy. like a book, Borobudur describes ten levels of Bodhisattva who must pass to reach the perfection of the Buddha.

The foot of Borobudur represents Kamadhatu, the world is still dominated by kama or "low desire". This section is mostly covered by a pile of rocks that allegedly made to strengthen the construction of the temple. In the closed part of this additional structure there are 120 panels Kammawibhangga story. A small percentage set aside additional structure so that people can still see the relief in this section.
Four floors with walls berelief on it by the experts called Rupadhatu. The floor is rectangular. Rupadhatu is a world that has been able to free himself from passion, but still bound by the appearance and shape. This level represents the nature of which, between nature and the natural bottom up. In part this Rupadhatu Buddha statues found in the recesses of the wall above ballustrade or breezeway.
Starting the fifth to the seventh floor the walls are not berelief. This level is called Arupadhatu (which means no tangible form or not). Circular floor plan. This level represents the nature of, where people are free from all desires and bond forms and shapes, but have not reached nirvana. Buddha statues are placed inside the stupa is covered with holes as in the cage. From outside the statues were still dim.
The highest level that describes the absence of being represented in the form of the largest and highest stupa. Stupa depicted plain without holes. In the largest stupa Buddha statue ever found an imperfect or unfinished also known as Buddha, who disalahsangkakan as Adibuddha statue, but through further research there never was a statue on the main stupa, statue that did not finish it was a mistake pemahatnya in ancient times. according to the belief that the statue did wrong in the manufacturing process must not be tampered with. Archaeological excavations carried out in the courtyard of this temple found many statues like this.
In the past, several statues of Buddha along with 30 stones with reliefs, two statues of lions, some of kala-shaped stones, stairs and gates are sent to the King of Thailand, Chulalongkorn, who visited the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) in 1896 as a gift from the Dutch Government as it.
Borobudur has no worship spaces like other temples. That there are long hallways which is a narrow road. The hallways surrounding the walled temple level by level. In the halls of the Buddhist is expected to perform ceremonial walk around the temple to the right. Shape of the building without room and terraced structure is alleged is the development of form punden staircase, which is a form of architecture from prehistoric native Indonesia.
Borobudur structure does not use cement at all, but the Interlock system is like Lego blocks that can be attached without glue.At every level carved reliefs on temple walls. These reliefs corresponding read-clockwise or called mapradaksina in Old Javanese language derived from Sanskrit meaning is daksina the east. These reliefs variety of story content, among other reliefs Jataka stories.


Reading of the stories are always the relief begins, and ends on the east side of the gate at every level, starting on the left and right ends of the gate. So obviously that the east is a staircase up the real (primary) and to the top of the temple, it means that the temple facing the east while the other sides of similar right.

In sequence, the story of the temple reliefs meaningful briefly as follows:
In accordance with symbolic meaning on the foot of the temple, reliefs that decorate the walls of a hidden shelf illustrates the law of karma. Rows of reliefs is not a story of the series (serial), but in each frame illustrates a story that has a causal correlation. Relief is not just to give a picture of human moral turpitude will be accompanied by punishment he received, but also human and reward good deeds. Overall, the portrayal of human life within the circle of birth - life - death (samsara) that never ends, and by the Buddhist religion is exactly what will end the chain to get to perfection.
Is a depiction of a history of the Buddha in a row of reliefs (but not a complete history) that starts from the Buddha's descent from heaven Tusita, and ending with the first sermon in the Deer Park near the city of Banaras. These reliefs lined the stairs on the south side, after a row exceeded the relief of 27 frames starting from the east side of the stairs. To-27 illustrates the frame busy, both in heaven and in the world, as a preparation to welcome the presence of the last incarnation of the Bodhisattva as the Buddha. The reliefs depict the birth of the Buddha in this arcapada as Prince Siddhartha, the son of King Suddhodana and Queen Maya of Kapilavastu Affairs. Relief amounted to 120 frames, which ended with the first sermon, which is symbolically expressed as the Turning of the Wheel of Dharma, the Buddha's teaching is called dharma also means "law", while dharma is represented as a wheel.
Jataka is the story of the Buddha before it was born as Prince Siddhartha. Protrusion of contents is the subject of good works, which distinguishes the Bodhisattvas of any other creature. Indeed, the collection of service / good deed is a step toward the level of preparation in an attempt to Buddhahood.
While Awadana, basically almost the same as the Jatakas but the culprit is not the Bodhisattvas, but someone else and the story was compiled in the book Diwyawadana which means the act of noble godlike, and the book Awadana Awadanasataka or a hundred stories. In the reliefs of the Borobudur temple and awadana Jataka, treated equally, meaning that they occur in the same row without any differentiated. The set of the best known of the life of the Bodhisattvas is Jatakamala or strands of Jataka stories, the work of poets Aryasura and who lived in the 4th century AD.
Is a row of reliefs adorn the walls of the hall to-2, is the story of a wandering Sudhana tirelessly in his quest for knowledge about the Supreme Truth by Sudhana. Description of the frame 460 is based on the Mahayana Buddhist scripture entitled Gandawyuha, and for the lid on the story of another Bhadracari.


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