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Ethnic Minang Kabau

Written By Unknown on Monday, March 12, 2012 | Monday, March 12, 2012

Ethnic of Minang

Minangkabau tribe or tribal Minang is derived from the province of West Sumatra. This tribe is famous for the matrilineal customary, though these people are very strong Minang embraced Islam. Indigenous basandi Personality ', Personality' basandi Qur'aan (Indigenous bersendikan law, law bersendikan Qur'an) is a reflection of Minangkabau Traditional Islam is based.

Interest Minang especially prominent in the field of education and commerce. Nearly half the total number of members of this tribe are in overseas. Minang overseas are generally settled in big cities, like Jakarta, Bandung, Pekanbaru, Medan, Batam, Palembang, and Surabaya. For outside the territory of Indonesia, tribal Minang widely available in Malaysia (especially Negeri Sembilan) and Singapore. Throughout Indonesia and even in foreign countries, ethnic cuisine is popularly known as Padang cuisine, very popular.
Minangkabau is a venue for Padri war that occurred in the year 1804 to 1837. The defeat in the war led to the tribe under the control of the Dutch East Indies colonial government since 1837 to 1942.
Minangkabau name comes from two words, minang (win) and Kabau (buffalo). The name was derived from a legend. It is said that in the 14th century, the Majapahit kingdom on an expedition to the Minangkabau. To prevent fighting, the local community proposed to pitting buffalo buffalo Minang with Java. Majapahit troops agreed to the proposal and provide a large and aggressive buffalo. While providing a community Minang a hungry buffalo with a knife given to the horns. In battle, the boy was looking for buffalo buffalo Java and immediately ripped his stomach, thinking buffalo is the parent who want to breastfeed. Minang community tersebutlah brilliance that inspired the name of the Minangkabau.

But from some other sources say that the name Minangkabau existed long before the events occurred buffalo fights, where previously a more precise term is Minangkabwa, Minangakamwa, Minangatamwan and Phinangkabhu. The term means Minangakamwa or Minangkamba Minang (river) which refers to two Twins Kampar river Kampar ie Left and Right Kampar. While Minangatamwan term that refers to the Kampar river is mentioned in inscriptions Kedukan Hill where there is mentioned that the founder of the kingdom of Srivijaya named Dapunta Hyang mass migration from the upstream river Kampar (Minangatamwan) located in the vicinity of Fifty Cities, West Sumatra.
Minang tribe is part of the community Deutro Malay (Melayu Muda) who migrated from southern China mainland to the island of Sumatra, about 2500-2000 years ago. It is estimated that this group of people entering from the east of the island of Sumatra, along the Kampar river or Minangkamwa (Minangatamwan) until they reached the plateau LUHAK nan Tigo (Darek). Then from this tribe LUHAK nan Tigo Minang spread to coastal areas (pasisie) on the west coast of Sumatra island, which stretches from north to Barus in Kerinci in the south.
Apart from LUHAK nan Tigo, coastal communities are also many who came from South India and Persia. Where migration occurs when a society is the west coast of Sumatra to the port of Malacca in addition to alternative trade, when the kingdom fell into the hands of the Portuguese.

Social Community
Minangkabau region consists of many villages. Nagari is an autonomous region with the highest authority in Minangkabau. No other political and social power that can interfere with customs in a village. Different Nagari will likely have different customs typical. Each village is led by a council consisting of tribal leaders from all the tribes in those villages. This council called Nagari Indigenous Density (KAN). From the result of deliberation and consensus in the council is a decision and rules that bind to villages was generated.
Tribal (Marga) in the Minangkabau ethnic group
Like other ethnic groups, the Minangkabau ethnic clans there are many who referred to the tribe. In the early formation of Minangkabau culture by Datuk Datuk Perpatih Ketumanggungan and Nan A stick, there are only four main tribes of the two kelarasan. The tribes are:
* Interest Koto * Interest Piliang * Spare Body * Interest Caniago

Minangkabau Overseas
Number of migrants
Is a term for the overseas Minangkabau Minangkabau tribe who live outside the province of West Sumatra, Indonesia. Minangkabau people migrated ethos is very high, even the highest estimated in Indonesia. From the results of studies ever conducted by Mohctar Naim, in 1961 there were approximately 32% Minang people living outside of West Sumatra. Then in 1971 the number had risen to 44%. Based on the 2000 census, Minang tribes who lived in West Sumatra amounted to 3.7 million inhabitants. With an estimated 7 million people worldwide Minang, means that nearly half of Minang are in overseas. Looking at the data, then there is a considerable change in the ethos of the Minangkabau people go abroad than any other tribe in Indonesia. For according to the 1930 census, immigrants Minangkabau only by 10.5% below the Bawean (35.9%), Batak (14.3%), and Banjar (14.2%).
Waves Overseas
Wander on ethnic Minang has lasted long enough. The first migration occurred in the 7th century, when many gold traders coming from the inland estuary Minangkabau trade in Edinburgh, and was involved in the formation of Malay kingdom. Massive migration occurred in the 14th century, where many families who move to Minang the east coast of Sumatra to the Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Along with the wave of migration to the east, also occurs Minang society movement to the west coast of Sumatra. Along the coast are nomads Minang established trading colonies, such as in Meulaboh, Aceh where Minang descent known as Aneuk Jamee. After the Sultanate of Malacca fell to the Portuguese in 1511, many families who move to the Minangkabau of South Sulawesi. They became supporters of the kingdom of Gowa, as a trader and administrator of the kingdom. Mr. Datuk Makotta with his wife Sitti, as a forerunner Minangkabau family in Sulawesi. The next wave of migration occurred in the 18th century, when the Minangkabau get the privilege to inhabit the region-linga Riau Sultanate.
During the colonial Dutch East Indies, a massive migration occurred in 1920, when a tobacco plantation in Deli Serdang, East Sumatra was opened. At the time of independence, many overseas Minang inhabit big cities in Java, especially Jakarta. Minang overseas now spread almost all over the world.
Overseas Property
At the end of the 18th century, many students who migrate to Mecca Minang to explore the religion of Islam, including Poor Haji, Haji Piobang, and Haji Sumanik. Arriving in the homeland, they spread a pure Islamic thought, and become strong advocates Padri movement in Minangkabau. The second wave occurred overseas to the Middle East at the beginning of the 20th century, led by Abdul Karim Amrullah, Tahir Jalaluddin, and Muhammad Jamil Jambek. Many immigrants who settled and successful Minang in Mecca, among them is Ahmad al-Khatib who became priests Minangkabawi Al-Haram Mosque
In addition to the Middle East, students Minangkabau are also many who migrate to Europe. They include Abdoel Rivai, Mohammad Hatta, Sutan Syahrir, Roestam Effendi, and Nazir Pamuntjak. Other intellectuals, Tan Malaka, wandering life in eight European countries and Asia, building a network of Asian freedom movement. All students Minang, who migrated to Europe since the end of the 19th century, a freedom fighter and founder of the Republic of Indonesia.

For Merantau
Cultural Factors
There are many explanations to this phenomenon, one of the causes is the matrilineal kinship system. With this system, the mastery of treasures held by women while men's rights in this case is quite small. This is what causes men Minang chose to leave. Now the woman was already prevalent Minangkabau wander. Not only for reasons join husband, but also because they want to trade, career and continuing education.
According to Rudolf Mrazek, the Dutch sociologist, two Minang cultural typology, namely anti-parochialism dynamism and free spirit birth, cosmopolitan, egalitarian, and broad-minded, this led to wander in the embedded culture of Minangkabau society. [7] spirit to change the fate of the pursuit of science and wealth, as well as the proverb says Ka Overseas Minang first Madang, babuah babungo square (better go leave because kampong yet useful) lead the youth to go wander Minang since young.
Economic Factors
Another explanation is that population growth is not accompanied with the increase of natural resources which can be processed. If the first crops and plantations, the main source of life where they can support the family, then now is the result of natural resources into their main income is not enough anymore to give the results to meet together, because it should be shared by several families. Also new is the growth opportunity with the opening of the plantation and mining. These factors are then encouraged people to go wander Minang try his luck abroad. For his first arrival to the ground overseas, usually the nomads settled first at home dunsanak considered a landlord. The new nomads are usually living as small traders.
Minangkabau people and Achievement
Minang tribe known as the tribe's educated, therefore they are also spread throughout Indonesia and even foreign countries in a wide range of professions and expertise, such as politicians, writers, scholars, teachers, journalists, and merchants. Based on a relatively small population (2.7% of the population of Indonesia), Minangkabau tribe is one of the most successful with many achievements. Tempo magazine in a special edition of 2000 noted that 6 out of 10 key figures Indonesia in the 20th century was the Minang.
Since the first Minang people have migrated to various parts of Java, Sulawesi, peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei, to the Filipinos. In 1390, King founded the Sultanate of Sulu Bagindo in southern Filipinos. In the 14th century Minang people migrating to the Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia and raised the king to the new country from among them. Raja Melewar is the first king of Negeri Sembilan who was appointed in 1773. At the end of the 16th century, scholars Minangkabau Ri Bandang Dato, Dato Patimang Ri, and Ri Dato Tiro, spread Islam in Indonesia east and Islamize the kingdom of Gowa.
The arrival of reformist Muslims studying in Cairo and Mecca affect the education system in Minangkabau. Modern Islamic schools Thawalib Sumatra and Princess Diniyah many birth activists are much involved in the process of independence, among other AR Sutan Mansur, Abbas Siradjuddin, and Djamaluddin Tamin.
In the period 1920 - 1960 many influential politicians Indonesia originated from the Minangkabau. After independence, four people sit down as prime minister Minangkabau (Sutan Syahrir, Mohammad Hatta, Abdul Halim, Muhammad Natsir), one as vice-president (Mohammad Hatta), one as president of the Republic of Indonesia under the RIS (Assaat), one became leaders of the Parliament (Chaerul Saleh), and the dozens who became ministers, among which is quite famous being Agus Salim and Mohammed Yamin. In addition to the government, in the parliamentary Liberal Democracy Indonesia is dominated by politicians Minang. They are incorporated into various kinds of party and ideology, Islamists, Nationalists, Communists and Socialists. Besides serving governor of the Province of Central Sumatra / West Sumatra, the Minangkabau also sit as governors of other provinces in Indonesia. They are Datuk Djamin (West Java), and Muhammad Muhammad Djosan Padang (Maluku), Datuk Anwar Madjo tongue Kuniang Nan (Central Sulawesi), Adenan Kapau Gani (South Sumatra), Djamin Datuk Bagindo (Edinburgh).
Author and journalist Minang much influence the development of the Indonesian language. They developed the Indonesian through a variety of professions and fields of expertise. Angry Rush, Abdul Muis, Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana, Idrus, Hamka, and AA Navis as a novelist. Taufik Ismail Anwar and poetry, as well as Abdul Rivai, Djamaluddin Adinegoro, Rosihan Anwar and Ani Idrus as a journalist.
In Indonesia and Malaysia, besides the Chinese, also known as the Minang accomplished businessman. Many successful entrepreneurs Minang business in the field of textile trade, restaurant, hospitality, education, and hospitals. Abdul Latif and Tunku Tan Sri Abdullah is a figure of Minangkabau businessmen success.
Many people Minang successful in the entertainment world, both as a director, producer, singer, and artist. Among them is the Usmar Ismail, Asrul Sani, Arizal, Ani Sumadi, Sukarno M. Noer, and Dorce Gamalama.
Minangkabau people also contributed a great deal in Malaysia and Singapore, among others, Tuanku Abdul Rahman (The first Supreme Pertuan Malaysia), Yusof bin Ishak (Singapore's first president), Zubir Said (composer of the national anthem of Singapore Singapore Come), Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, Rais Yatim, Tan Sri Abdul Samad Idris and Adnan bin Saidi. In the Netherlands, Roestam Effendi, who represents the Communist Party of the Netherlands, being the only person who ever sat Indonesia as a member of parliament....

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