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Ethnic Betawi

Written By Rio Gonzales on Sunday, January 22, 2012 | Sunday, January 22, 2012

Betawi tribe came from the mating-mawin interethnic and nation in the past. Biologically, they are claiming to be the Betawi people are descendants of mixed blood of the various tribes and nations that were imported by the Dutch to Batavia. What is called with actual people or tribe counted newcomers Betawi in Jakarta. These ethnic groups were born from a mix of other ethnic groups who had already been living in Jakarta, like Sundanese, Javanese, Arabic, Bali, Sumbawa, Ambon, Malay and Chinese.The term Betawi
Betawi words used to express the native tribes who inhabit the Jakarta and Creole Malay language it uses, as well as Malay culture. Betawi word actually comes from the word "Batavia," which is the ancient name of Jakarta which is given by the Dutch.


History Preceded by the Sundanese (majority), before the 16th century and into the kingdom and then Pakuan Pajajaran Tarumanegara. In addition to the Sundanese, there are also foreign merchants and sailors from the north coast of Java, from different islands of Eastern Indonesia, from Malacca on the Malay peninsula, and even from China and Gujarat in India.
Anthropologist University of Indonesia, Dr. Yasmine Zaki Shahab, MA estimates, the Betawi ethnic recently formed around a century ago, between the years 1815-1893. This estimate is based on a study of demographic history of Jakarta residents who pioneered Australian historian, Lance Castle. In the Dutch colonial era, governments always do the census, which is based on the nation or ethnic group. In Jakarta the population census data in 1615 and 1815, there were people from various ethnic groups, but there is no record of the Betawi ethnic group.
Bugis houses in the northern part of Jl. Two mangoes in the area of ​​Bugis village which began in 1690. In the early 20th century there are still some homes like these in the city. The results of the census in 1893 showed a loss of some ethnic groups that previously existed. For example, Arabs and Moors, the Javanese and Sundanese people of South Sulawesi, Sumbawa people, people of Ambon and Banda, and the Malays.
Interest Betawi
In 1930, the category Betawi people who previously did not exist just emerging as a new category in the census data. The number of Betawi people as much as 778,953 lives and become the majority population of Batavia at the time.
Another anthropologist, University of Indonesia, Prof. Dr. Parsudi Suparlan states of consciousness as the early formation of the Betawi ethnic group was also not yet taken root. In daily life, they more often call themselves based on their locality of residence, such as the Kemayoran, Senen people, or people Rawabelong.


Recognition of the Betawi people as an ethnic group and as a social and political unit within the broader scope, namely the Dutch East Indies, had appeared in 1923, when Husni Thamrin, community leaders founded the Perkoempoelan Kaoem Betawi Betawi. New at the same time all the Betawi people are aware they are a party, namely the class of the Betawi.
There is also the opinion that the Betawi community includes not only blend in Batavia castle built by the Dutch but also includes people outside the fortress called proto Betawi community. Locals outside the fort of Batavia is already using the Malay language, which is commonly used in Sumatra, which then serve as the national language. This happens because in the 6th century, the kingdom of Srivijaya kingdom Tarumanagara attacking center located in the northern part of Jakarta, so the influence of the Malay language is very strong here.
In addition, the agreement between Surawisesa (King of Sunda) by the Portuguese in 1512 which allowed the Portuguese to build a community in the Sunda Kalapa result of mixed marriages among the local population with a lower Portuguese Portuguese mixed blood. Of this community was born keroncong music.
After independence
Since the end of last century and especially after independence (1945), Jakarta is flooded with immigrants from all over Indonesia, so that the Betawi people - in any sense as well - to live as a minority. In 1961, the 'tribe' Betawi covers approximately 22.9 percent of the 2.9 million people in Jakarta at that time. They are increasingly pushed to the periphery, even noisy evicted and displaced to the outside of Jakarta. Although actually, 'tribe' Betawi is never displaced or evicted from Jakarta, because the process of assimilation of the various tribes in Indonesia until now continues and through a long process that also 'tribe' Betawi present in the archipelago.
Language
Mixed nature of the Betawi dialect is a reflection of Betawi culture in general, which is the result of a variety of cultural marriages, whether originating from other regions of the archipelago as well as foreign cultures.
There is also the opinion that the tribes who inhabit the area around Batavia are also classified as an ethnic Betawi initial (proto Betawi). Historically, the Kingdom Tarumanagara, based in Sundapura or Sunda Kalapa, had attacked and conquered by the Sumatran Srivijaya empire. Therefore, do not be surprised if at the port of Sunda Sunda ethnic Kalapa, long before the Youth Pledge, already use the Malay language, which is commonly used in Sumatra, which then serve as the national language.
Because of differences in language used was then at the beginning of the 20th century, the Dutch think people who live around Batavia as different ethnic and call it a Sundanese ethnic ethnic Betawi (a derivation of Batavia). However, there are many local names and the name of the river which is still maintained in Sundanese as word Ancol, Jewel, Cilandak, Ciliwung, Cideng (derived from Cihideung and then turned into Cideung and tearkhir be Cideng), and others are still accordance with the naming described in ancient texts Bujangga Manik [1] which is currently stored in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, England.
Although the formal language used in Jakarta is Indonesian, the language of informal or colloquial language is Indonesian Betawi dialect.
Art
In the arts, for example, the Betawi people have Gambang Kromong art derived from Chinese art of music, but there is also rooted in the traditions Rebana Arabic music, Keroncong monument to the Portuguese-Arab background, and Tanjidor the background to the Netherlands-an. Currently tribe famous for its art Lenong Betawi, Gambang Kromong, Rebana Tanjidor and Keroncong.
Culture
Mixed nature of the Betawi dialect is a reflection of Betawi culture in general, which is the result of a variety of cultural marriages, whether originating from other regions of the archipelago as well as foreign cultures. In the arts, for example, the Betawi people have Gambang Kromong art from the art of Chinese music, but there is also rooted in the traditions Rebana Arabic music, Keroncong monument to the Portuguese-Arab background, and Tanjidor the background to the Netherlands-an.
Biologically, they are claiming to be the Betawi people are descendants of mixed blood of the various tribes and nations. They are the result of mating-mawin interethnic and nation in the past.
Confidence
Most of the Betawi people embraced Islam. But the Christian religion; Protestants and Catholics also exist but very few. Among the ethnic Betawi Christian, some have claimed that they are descendants of a mixture of local residents by the Portuguese. This is reasonable because at the beginning of the 16th century, Surawisesa, king of Sunda entered into an agreement with Portugal which allowed the Portuguese to build forts and warehouses at the port of Sunda Kalapa thus formed in the Sunda Kalapa Portuguese community.

Profession
In Jakarta, the Betawi before the era of the construction of the new order, divided into several professions according to the scope of area (village) each of them. Such as in the village and surrounding Rawabelong Kemanggisan found many farmers flowers (orchids, frangipani Japanese, etc.). And in general many become teachers, lecturers, and educators such as KH Djunaedi, K.H. Suit, etc.. Professional traders, batik also acted by the Betawi. Farmers and planters are also common Kemanggisan acted by residents.
The village is now better known as Brass is where dairy farmers. Kemandoran village where the land is not sesubur Kemanggisan. Foremen, defender, champion martial arts encountered many such there Ji'ih comrade Pitung of Rawabelong. Paseban many residents in the village are the office workers since the Dutch first, despite their martial arts skills are also not in doubt. Teacher, teacher, chaplain, retail and professional traders also often acted.
Residents Tevet is the original Betawi people Senayan eviction, because at that time, Bung Karno Ganefonya causing an exodus to the Betawi people Tebet and surrounding areas for "forced" to pave the manufacture of the Bung Karno sports complex that we know today. Because the ethnic origin of their formation is multicultural (the archipelago, Chinese, Indian, Arabic, Dutch, Portuguese, etc.), each professional on how to view the customized formation of ethnic and ethnic mix of each base.
Behaviour and properties
The assumption most people on the Betawi people are rarely successful, both in terms of economy, education and technology. while not a few people who managed to betawi. you name it Muhammad Husni Thamrin, Benjamin S, even up to the current Governor of Jakarta, Fauzi Bowo.
There are some positive things from Batavia, among others, their social spirit is very high, though sometimes in some ways too much and tend to be tendentious. Betawi people also are maintaining the religious values ​​that are reflected from the teachings of parents (especially the religion of Islam), to his children. Betawi community would appreciate pluralism. this is seen with good relations between people of Betawi and migrants from outside Jakarta.
Betawi people are very respectful of the culture they inherited. evident from the behavior of most people who play or played mesih culture inherited from time to time as lenong, ondel-ondel, Gambang Kromong, and others.
It is undeniable that the presence of most of today's society betawi somewhat marginalized by modernization i
n the birth of his own land (read: New York). but still there is the optimism of the Betawi people who justreu future generations will support the modernization.

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